Tuesday, July 15, 2008

BBC SPORT | Cricket | England | India hold nerve to level series

low back pain treatment Second one-day international, Bristol:
India 329-7 (50 ovs) bt England 320-9 (50 ovs) by nine runs



India beat England by nine runs to level the one-day international series.

Sachin Tendulkar struck 15 fours and a six in an epic 99, his 80th ODI fifty and Rahul Dravid hit an unbeaten 92 as India scored 329-7 after opting to bat.

England raced to 76 within 11 overs but lost both openers in two balls. Piyush Chawla ousted Kevin Pietersen with his second ball but Ian Bell hit a calm 64.

Dimitri Mascarenhas fired five sixes in 52 off 39 balls and Stuart Broad hit 20 in the last over in a frantic finale.

Interview: England one-day captain Paul Collingwood Interview: India captain Rahul Dravid

After the arctic conditions at the Rose Bowl on Tuesday evening, the weather was much more to the liking of the Indian team and their many followers.

While the tourists added another spinner to their ranks in Ramesh Powar, England omitted Monty Panesar and picked another seamer, Chris Tremlett.

Dravid had little hesitation in batting first and it quickly became apparent there was little assistance in the pitch for the bowlers.

For a brief period the attacking shots found the fielders but it did not last and Tendulkar began to play in virtuoso fashion, finding the gaps to the small boundaries.

Paul Collingwood elected to take the final powerplay but Ganguly launched Tremlett back over his head for six in an over costing 17.

Tremlett also spilled a tough chance when Tendulkar was on 57, but was perhaps the only man tall enough to have got his hands to a rasping aerial drive.

The next ball produced a wicket, Collingwood taking an excellent catch running backwards at point when Ganguly carved a drive.

Tremlett returned and was promptly despatched for another six, Tendulkar stepping down the pitch to fizz the ball over long-off.

The only obstacle to Tendulkar reaching three figures appeared to be injury and the maestro received lengthy treatment to his hands, wincing at the sharp pain.

He had another reprieve on 93 when he glanced Collingwood but Matt Prior could not hold a sharp chance down the leg-side.

But when Tendulkar was on 99 Andrew Flintoff produced a magnificent bouncer that reared up from the unresponsive pitch and surprised the icon, who fended the ball away.

Prior leapt superbly to snare the catch diving to his left and Tendulkar was denied a 42nd ODI century, much to the dismay of his adoring fans.

Another neat Collingwood catch, this time low at point, accounted for Yuvraj Singh for 49, but that merely allowed Mahendra Dhoni the chance to cut loose in nine overs.

Dravid reached fifty from 43 balls and was the dominant partner in a stand of 59 from 38 deliveries to which Dhoni contributed 21.

Tremlett, moved to backward square-leg after some lax fielding on the boundary improved his wretched day somewhat when he took a fine catch when Dhoni paddled a slower ball.

Even more worrying news for England was a scare to Flintoff, who crashed into the advertising boards in pursuit of the ball and suffered pain behind his knee.

There was still time for more fireworks, Dravid firing a square drive off Anderson for six and guiding a late cut for four, Flintoff with two wickets in the final over to take his first one-day five-wicket haul.

Because of the length of time taken to bowl the overs, there were barely 10 minutes between innings, but although the floodlights were on there was bright sunshine when England began their quest for a record total.

It was an electrifying start, Alastair Cook and Prior with some fluent strokes, Ajit Agarkar conceding 41 from his first four overs.

Prior was caught off a no-ball but two balls later drove wildly at Munaf Patel and Dravid held a spiralling chance at mid-off.

The batsmen crossed and Patel produced a good one next up to take Cook's edge.

In the next over Bell, on one, played an upper cut straight to third man but the portly Powar spilled the chance.

Still the chances came - and went. In Ganguly's first over, Dhoni juggled with a routine Pietersen edge at the stumps and the bowler himself then failed to take a low return catch.

But teenage leg-spinner Chawla made another key breakthrough, squeezing his second delivery between an incredulous Pietersen's bat and pad.

Chawla and Powar then bowled in tandem, with clever variations, and the rate slipped over seven, Collingwood having made a typically enterprising 27 deceived by Chawla's googly.

Flintoff started in superb fashion, thumping his first ball through the covers and pulling his third delivery for another lusty boundary.

But once again he picked out a fielder with a lofted stroke, Agarkar not having to move at deep mid-wicket.

Ravi Bopara added 35 in seven overs with Bell in calm fashion but when he was plumb lbw to Patel, 110 were still needed from 73 balls and only four wickets remained.

As he demonstrated in his century at the Rose Bowl, Bell danced down the wicket to hit an imperious first six, but attempting to repeat the stroke next ball he could not connect with the middle of the bat and the stroke went straight to Patel on the long-on fence.

Mascarenhas hit the spinners for three sixes to reduce the requirement to 65 from the final six overs and added two more, sending one shot into the guttering of the stand, before mis-cueing to mid-wicket in the penultimate over.

Patel bowled the final over with the cushion of 30 to play with.

Left-hander Broad swung the first ball to mid-wicket where Powar took the ball over the ropes, and two bottom edges for four plus another maximum left 10 needed from the final ball and Patel ensured he did not over-step.


This is a part of article BBC SPORT | Cricket | England | India hold nerve to level series Taken from "Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)" Information Blog

Thursday, July 10, 2008

‘The drugs are worth the risk’

arcoxia A large UK study has found that painkillers used for the treatment of arthritis - COX-2 inhibitors such as arcoxia and other such as ibuprofen and diclofenac - increase the risk of heart attack.

But many patients are completely dependent on the drugs to control their pain, and feel the risk is worth taking.

Catherine Cribb tells the BBC what it's like to live with arthritis.

"I have had rheumatoid arthritis for 15 years.

"I'm currently taking arcoxia which makes life worth living."

"Without it, I wouldn't be able to get moving in the morning.

"I have seen people taken off the drugs and put on paracetamol and they are really struggling - it doesn't even touch the pain."

'Unbearable pain'

Catherine, aged 58, lives in Formby, Merseyside, and has tried many drugs over the years to help control her condition, including ibuprofen, and believes the increased risk of heart attack is nothing compared to the quality of life she gets from the drugs.

"The best ones for me are the COX-2s but it doesn't suit everybody.

"People have to work out what's best for them.

"I don't think people realise how bad it is - sometimes I won't want to stand up because I know the pain will be unbearable.

"There's risks to everything but without these drugs there would be no point carrying on," she said.

"You have to be able to live life."
This is a part of article ‘The drugs are worth the risk’ Taken from "Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)" Information Blog

Saturday, July 05, 2008

Combination Therapy: The Future of Medical Management for PAH

sildenafil

Rationale for Combining Therapies


The current treatment strategy for PAH targets the mediators of the 3 main biologic pathways that are critical to its pathogenesis and progression (Figure 3). Endothelin receptor antagonists inhibit the activated endothelin pathway by blocking the biologic activity of the mediator endothelin-1, phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors increase endogenous availability of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which signals the vasorelaxing effects of the deficient mediator nitric oxide, and prostacyclin derivatives provide an exogenous supply of the deficient mediator prostacyclin.[4] Combining these molecular targets makes intuitive sense, because all of these pathways are intimately involved in disease progression. A similar strategy of combining molecular targets has been very successful in the management of patients with chronic heart failure from left ventricular systolic dysfunction, where combination therapy is the standard of care.

Figure 3.  (click image to zoom)

Molecular targets for therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
From: Humbert M, Sitbon O, Simonneau G. Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1425-1436. The New England Journal of Medicine (c) 2004.      

  Printer- Friendly Email ThisReferencesRubin LJ. Diagnosis and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2004;126:7S-10S. AbstractWagenvoort CA, Wagenvoort H. Primary pulmonary hypertension: a pathologic study of the lung vessels in 156 classically diagnosed cases. Circulation. 1970;42:1163-1184.Gaine SP, Rubin LJ. Primary pulmonary hypertension. Lancet. 1998;352:719-725. AbstractHumbert M, Sitbon O, Simonneau G. Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1425-1436. AbstractBadesch DB, Abman SH, Ahearn GS, et al. Medical therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension: ACCP evidence-based practice guidelines. Chest. 2004;126:35S-62S. AbstractRich S, Seidlitz M, Dodin E, et al. The short-term effects of digoxin in patients with right ventricular dysfunction from pulmonary hypertension. Chest. 1998;114:787-792. AbstractRich S, Kaufmann E, Levy PS. The effect of high doses of calcium-channel blockers on survival in primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:76-81. AbstractSitbon O, Humbert M, Jais X, et al. Long-term response to calcium channel blockers in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circulation. 2005;111:3105-3111. AbstractChannick RN, Simonneau G, Sitbon O, et al. Effects of the dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Lancet. 2001;358:1119-1123. AbstractRubin LJ, Badesch DB, Barst RJ, et al, for the Bosentan Randomized Trial of Endothelin Antagonist Therapy Study Group. Bosentan therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:896-903. AbstractMcLaughlin VV, Sitbon O, Badesch DB, et al. Survival with first-line bosentan in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2005;25:244-249. AbstractHoeper MM. Drug treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: current and future agents. Drugs. 2005;65:1337-1354. AbstractWilkins MR, Paul GA, Strange JW, et al. Sildenafil versus endothelin receptor antagonist for pulmonary hypertension (SERAPH) study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:1292-1297. AbstractOlschewski H, Simonneau G, Galie N, et al, for the Aerosolized Iloprost Randomized Study Group. Inhaled Iloprost for Severe Pulmonary Hypertension N Engl J Med. 2002;347:322-329.Simmoneau G, Barst RJ, Galie N, et al, for the Treprostinil Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:800-804. AbstractGomberg-Maitland M, Tapson VF, Benza RL, et al. Transition from intravenous epoprostenol to intravenous treprostinil in pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep 8 [epub ahead of print].Barst RJ, Rubin LJ, Long WA, et al, for The Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:296-301. AbstractMcLaughlin VV, Shillington A, Rich S. Survival in Primary Pulmonary Hypertension: The Impact of Epoprostenol Therapy. Circulation. 2002;106:1477-1482. AbstractSitbon O, Humbert M, Nunes H, et al. Long-term intravenous epoprostenol infusion in primary pulmonary hypertension: prognostic factors and survival. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:780-788. AbstractKao PN. Simvastatin treatment for pulmonary hypertension: an observational case series. Chest. 2005;127:1446-1452. AbstractHumbert M, Barst RJ, Robbins IM, et al. Combination of bosentan with epoprostenol in pulmonary arterial hypertension: BREATHE-2. Eur Respir J. 2004;24:353-359. AbstractGhofrani HA, Wiedemann R, Rose F, et al. Combination therapy with oral sildenafil and inhaled iloprost for severe pulmonary hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:515-522. AbstractWilkens H, Guth A, Konig J, et al. Effect of inhaled iloprost plus oral sildenafil in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 2001;104:1218-1222. AbstractGhofrani HA, Rose F, Schermuly RT, et al. Oral sildenafil as long-term adjunct therapy to inhaled iloprost in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:158-164. AbstractHoeper MM, Faulenbach C, Golpon H, Winkler J, Welte T, Niedermeyer J. Combination therapy with bosentan and sildenafil in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2004;24:1007-1010. AbstractPaul GA, Gibbs JS, Boobis AR, Abbas A,Wilkins MR. Bosentan decreases the plasma concentration of sildenafil when coprescribed in pulmonary hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;60:107-112. Abstract

Medscape Cardiology.  2005;9(2) ©2005 Medscape
This is a part of article Combination Therapy: The Future of Medical Management for PAH Taken from "Disfunction Erectile" Information Blog

Friday, July 04, 2008

Intracavernosol Injection Algorithm

impotence

Abstract and Introduction


Abstract

Intracavernosal injections provide an effective therapy for men with erectile dysfunction who can not take oral agents or for whom oral agents are not effective. Determining the best initial dosage can be a challenge for health care providers. A literature review and 13 years of experience working with patients receiving intracavernosal injections provide the basis for the algorithm designed to provide guidance with the dosage and titration of the injection medications.Introduction

Intracavernosal injection therapy is an effective therapy for men with erectile dysfunction (ED) who can not take oral agents or for whom oral agents are not effective. Initial dosing and dosage titration is typically individualized for each man, but there are general guidelines that can be followed. In caring for men who are beginning therapy with intracavernosal penile injections, the health care clinician is faced with many choices about starting dosages and titration of medications.

Injections are given with a 1 ml syringe with 1/2 or 5/8-inch length, and a 27 to 30-gauge needle. The injection may be given anywhere from the base of the penis to two-thirds of the way down the penile shaft at the 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock locations on the upper side of the penis away from the urethra and the head of the penis (see Figure 1). Injections are rotated within that area and the side of the injection is alternated with each injection. Many factors must be considered when determining a starting dose and titrating medication for patients. The goal of this treatment is to create an erection sufficient for sexual relations, while minimizing side effects such as pain or priapism.

Figure 1.  (click image to zoom)

Intracavernosal Injection Sites illustrated in shaded area.      

  Printer- Friendly Email ThisReferencesBaniel, J., Israilov, S., Engelstein, D., Shmueli, J., Segenreich, E., & Livne, P.M. (2000). Three-year outcome of a progressive treatment program for erectile dysfunction with intracavernous injections of vasoactive drugs. Urology, 56(4), 647-652Bennett, A.H., Carpenter, A.J., & Barada, J.H. (1991). An improved vasoactive drug combination for a pharmacological erection program. Journal of Urology, 146(6), 1564-1565Brindley, G.S. (1986). Pilot experiments on the actions of drugs injected into the human corpus cavernosum penis. British Journal of Pharmacology, 87(3), 495-500Brock, G., Tu, L.M., & Linet, O.I. (2001). Return of spontaneous erection during long-term intracavernosal alprostadil (Caverject) treatment. Urology, 57(3), 536-541Goldstein, I., Auerbach, S., Padma-Nathan, H., Rajfer, J., Fitch, W., & Schmitt, L. (2000). Axial penile rigidity as primary efficacy outcome during multi-institutional in-office dose titration clinical trials with alprostadil alfadex in patients with erectile dysfunction. Alprostadil alfadex study group. International Journal of Impotence Research, 12(4), 205-211Kuan, J.K., & Brock, G.B. (2001). Salvage of the sildenafil non-responder: The role of locally delivered therapies. Sexual Dysfunction in Medicine, 2(2), 34-39Linet, O.I., & Ogring, F.G. (1996). Efficacy and safety of intracavernosal alprostadil in men with erectile dysfunction. New England Journal of Medicine, 334(14), 873-877Montorsi, F., Salonia, A., Zanoni, M., Pompa, P., Cestari, A., Guazzoni, G., et al. (2002). Current status of local penile therapy. [review] [80 refs]. International Journal of Impotence Research, 14(Suppl. 1), S70-81Mulhall, J.P., Jahoda, A.E., Cairney, M., Goldstein, B., Leitzes, R., Woods, J., et al. (1999). The causes of patient dropout from penile self-injection therapy for impotence. Journal of Urology, 162(4), 1291-1294Pharmacia. (2002). Caverject Impulse prescribing information. Kalamazoo, MI:Pharmacia and UpJohnPorst, H., Buvat, J., Meuleman, E., Michal, V., & Wagner, G. (1998). Intracavernous alprostadil alfadex – an effective and well tolerated treatment for erectile dysfunction. Results of a long-term European study. International Journal of Impotence Research, 10(4), 225-231Richters, S., Vardi, Y., Ringel, A., Shavel, M., & Nissenkorn, I. (2001). Intra venous injections: Still the gold standard for treatment of erectile dysfunction in elderly men. International Jouranl of Impotence Research, 13, 172-175Schwarz Pharma. (2004). Edex (alpro stadil). Prescribing information. Milwaukee, WI:Schwarz PharmaSeyam, R., Mohamed, K., Akhras, A.A., & Rashwan, H. (2005). A prospective randomized study to optimize the dosage of trimix ingredients and compare its efficacy and safety with prostaglandin E1. International Journal of Impotence Research, 7, 346-353

Urol Nurs.  2006;26(6):449-453.  ©2006 Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates
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Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Current Therapeutic Strategies

cialis

Choice of Therapy


The decision of which agent to use is largely dependent on the severity of PAH at presentation and, to some extent, on patient preference. In patients who are WHO functional class I-II at presentation, an oral agent, such as an endothelin-receptor antagonist or phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is usually an appropriate first choice and often results in symptomatic improvement. For patients who present with evidence of right heart failure or right ventricular dysfunction, a parenteral agent (typically epoprostenol or a prostacyclin analog) can be appropriate, but the initiation of oral agents should also be considered. Increasingly, many patients are hesitant to consider a parenteral agent in the face of available oral agents; however, no long-term data exist regarding the use of the oral agents in patients with severe right ventricular dysfunction.Previous PageSection 7 of 10 Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2007; 4(6):319-329. ©2007  Nature Publishing Group
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Thursday, July 03, 2008

COX-2 Inhibitors and The Cardiovascular System: A Class Effect?

etoricoxib

Conclusions


It seems clear that rofecoxib stands out amongst the COX-2 inhibitors as carrying a greater risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events, oedema and loss of blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients when compared to classical NSAIDs. The increase in cardiovascular risk is greatest after about 18 months of use, and many of the newer COX-2 inhibitors have not been studied adequately over such prolonged periods. However, the emerging data suggest that the increased cardiovascular risk is probably a class effect, although the absolute risk with drugs other than rofecoxib is small. There may also be a dose-related increase in risk with some drugs, particularly celecoxib and valdecoxib, with the greatest risk at doses higher than those usually used for the treatment of arthritis.

Currently, the Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (MRHA) recommend avoiding treatment with COX-2 selective inhibitors whenever possible in patients with known ischaemic heart disease or those who are at high risk of developing it. They also recommend that the smallest dose of a COX-2 inhibitor should be prescribed for the shortest possible duration if the drugs are used. The risk associated with the use of meloxicam, a drug with less COX selectivity, has received less attention. Current evidence has not demonstrated any differences from conventional NSAIDs, but definitive studies are awaited.

If the prescription of COX-2 selective inhibitors is considered for patients with ischaemic heart disease, then a full discussion of risk should take place, and all alternative treatment options should be explored. The long-term use of COX-2 inhibitors for patients at lower cardiovascular risk should also be reassessed in the light of the lack of evidence for a reduction in serious gastrointestinal toxicity for many of the drugs compared with classical NSAIDs.  Printer- Friendly Email ThisReprint Address

Correspondence to: Dr DG Waller (email: derek.waller@suht.swest.nhs.uk )

Br J Cardiol.  2005;12(5):387-391.  ©2005 Sherborne Gibbs Ltd.
This is a part of article COX-2 Inhibitors and The Cardiovascular System: A Class Effect? Taken from "Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)" Information Blog

An Update on Transient Ischemic Attacks

viagra

Summary


Healthcare professionals want the best outcomes for people who have had TIA. Achieving better outcomes includes being knowledgeable about the proposed definition of TIA and the aggressive work-up recommended. Patient and family members need to be knowledgeable about anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents, surgical procedures, and risks so that all can work together to prevent a recurring TIA and possible future stroke.CE Information

The print version of this journal was originally certified for CE credit, For accreditation details, please contact the publisher, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN) 4700 W. Lake Avenue, Glenview, IL 60025-1485.  Printer- Friendly Email ThisReprint Address

Janice Hinkle, PhD RN CNRN, Acute Stroke Programme, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Level 7, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, England OX3 9DU, or via e-mail at janice.hinkle@ndm.ox.ac.uk .

J Neurosci Nurs.  2005;37(5):243-248.  ©2005 American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
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Monday, May 12, 2008

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Thursday, April 17, 2008

European Medicines Agency concludes action on COX-2 inhibitors

Concluding its legal proceeding of the taxonomic category of COX-2 inhibitors, the European Medicines Business (EMEA) has recommended the supporting of the commercialism authority for Bextra (valdecoxib) and recommended new contraindications and warnings for other COX-2 inhibitors that continue to be available in the European Mating (EU).
This builds on earlier regulatory actions taken in February 2005.

COX-2 inhibitors are part of a broader accumulation of medicines called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), whose refuge visibility will now also be examined.

At its 20-23 June 2005 assembly the Agency’s Administrative body for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) said that additional warnings and contraindications are necessary for all COX-2 inhibitors due to the cardiovascular risks, but concluded that the additional risks of serious and potentially fatal skin reactions associated with the use of Bextra outweigh its benefits.
The inactivity of Bextra will be reviewed within one year, during which time Pfizer has the opportunity to provide further safety device and other relevant data before the Administrative body can consider the re-introduction of the mathematical product in the EU.
At the content of the EMEA, Pfizer voluntarily agreed in April 2005 to withdraw the upshot from the grocery in the EU.

For the other COX-2 inhibitors (celecoxib, etoricoxib, lumiracoxib and parecoxib), the Commission agreed that the available data show an increased risk of thrombotic adverse cardiovascular reactions, such as intuition attacks and strokes.
The CHMP confirmed its February 2005 determination of an memory between time and dose of body process and the amount of excruciation such cardiovascular reactions.
The Nongovernmental organization also confirmed that serious skin reactions occur with other COX-2 inhibitors, but have been reported at lower rates than with Bextra.
In concluding its followup, the CHMP recommended the motion contraindications and precautions for these products:

— Contraindications stating that COX-2 inhibitors must not be used in patients with established ischaemic substance disease and/or cerebrovascular disease (stroke), and also in patients with peripheral arterial disease

— Reinforced warnings to healthcare professionals to utilisation judiciousness when prescribing COX-2 inhibitors to patients with risk factors for fondness disease, such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia (high cholesterol levels), diabetes and ventilation

— Given the group between cardiovascular risk and representation to COX-2 inhibitors, doctors are advised to use the lowest effective dose for the shortest applier period of time of care

— Additional or strengthened warnings to healthcare professionals and patients that predisposition reactions and rare, but serious and sometimes fatal, skin reactions can occur with all COX-2 inhibitors.
In the absolute majority of cases these occur in the low period of time of use, and prescribers are warned that patients with a record of drug allergies may be at greater risk.
When prescribed in giving with these additional contraindications and precautions, the Administrative unit concluded that the equalizer of benefits and risks stiff adjective for these COX-2 inhibitors used in their victim participant role populations.
In suburbia to any ongoing studies, the CHMP emphasised the grandness for the control holders for COX-2 inhibitors in the EU (Merck Sewing needle & Dohme, Novartis and Pfizer) to continuously and carefully supervisor and assess cardiovascular status and serious skin reactions.

The Administrative body assessed country data for COX-2 inhibitors versus some conventional NSAIDs during the assemblage of the reassessment activity for the COX-2 inhibitors.
On the ground of these data and hoi polloi a subject matter from the European Dictation, the NGO has now decided to look at the base hit cross section of NSAIDs to determine the need for further stairway.
This will chassis on a follow-up already started by the Committee’s Pharmacovigilance Working Somebody on the safe of the most commonly used NSAIDs.

It is unclear if the findings for COX-2 inhibitors are also relevant for conventional NSAIDs.
Pending any time recommendations, healthcare professionals and patients should closely follow the Cartesian product selective information for conventional NSAIDs (whether medication or non-prescription products) and COX-2 inhibitors.
This is a part of article European Medicines Agency concludes action on COX-2 inhibitors Taken from "Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)" Information Blog

The Biochemical Selectivity of Novel COX-2 Inhibitors

Nineteen healthy volunteers (eight females and 11 males, aged 29.4 ± 9 years) were enrolled to participate in the knowledge base after its subject matter by the Ethical Administrative body of the Establishment of Chieti.
Informed consent was obtained from each person.
The same healthy volunteers were studied on different occasions.COX-2 Report

One-ml aliquots of peripheral venous rake samples containing 10 i.u. of sodium heparin were incubated in the beingness of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 µg/ml) or saline for 24 h at 37°C as previously described. The amount of money of platelet COX-1 was suppressed by pretreating the subjects with aspirin 300 mg 48 h before distribution. Calcedony was separated by centrifugation (10 min at 2000 rev/min) and kept at -80°C until assayed for PGE2, as an mathematical notation of LPS-induced monocyte COX-2 action.COX-1 Test

Peripheral venous rip samples were drawn from the same donors when they had not taken any NSAID during the 2 weeks preceding the sketch.
One-ml aliquots of physical object rip were immediately transferred into Methedrine tubes and allowed to clot at 37°C for 1 h.
Serum was separated by centrifugation (10 min at 3000 rev/min) and kept at -80°C until assayed for TXB2.
Construct debauchee TXB2 presentation was measured as a manifestation of maximally stimulated platelet COX-1 deed in reaction to endogenously formed thrombin. Effects of COX-2 Inhibitors on Object Rakehell COX-2 and COX-1 Activities

Rofecoxib (0.0025-200 mM), celecoxib (0.005-50 mM), valdecoxib (0.0005-50 mM), etoricoxib (0.0005-150 mM), DFU (0.005-250 mM) and DFP (0.005-250 mM) were dissolved in DMSO, and 2-ml aliquots of the solutions were pipetted directly into test tubes to give exam concentrations of 0.001-500 mM in bodily fluid.
Six to ten different concentrations of each chemical compound were incubated with heparinised construct roue samples in the bearing of LPS (10 µg/ml) for 24 h or with object parentage samples allowed to clot at 37°C for 1 h, in act to examine the concentration-dependence of COX-2 vs COX-1 biological process, respectively.
The actual concentrations of the compounds used for each appraisal are reported in the legends to figures.Analyses of PGE2 and TXB2

PGE2 and TXB2 concentrations were measured by previously described and validated radioimmunoassays. Unextracted plasm and serum samples were diluted in the displacement unit diluent of the report (0.02 M soft drink chemical compound, pH 7.4) and assayed in a mass of 1.5 ml at a final examination weakening of 1 : 50-1 : 30 000.
We used 4000 d.p.m. of [3H]PGE2 or [3H]TXB2 and particular anti-PGE2 and anti-TXB2 sera diluted 1 : 100 000 and 1 : 120 000, respectively.
The least detectable assembly was 1-2 pg/ml for both prostanoids.Materials

[3H]PGE2 and [3H]TXB2 (specific bodily function > 100 Ci/mmol) were from Perkin Elmer Life Field Products (Brussels, Belgium).
Authentic PGE2 and TXB2 were from Cayman Chemical Full complement (Ann Shaft, Mich, USA).
Anti-PGE2 and anti-TXB2 sera were obtained in our research lab and their characteristics have been described previously. Heparin, LPS derived from Escherichia coli 026:B6 and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were purchased from Sigma Chemical Organisation (St.
Louis, Mo, USA).
Rofecoxib, valdecoxib, etoricoxib, DFU and DFP were provided by Merck & Co., Inc.
Celecoxib was obtained from Searle.Statistical Criticism

For each research project, the quantity of PGE2 produced in LPS-stimulated object humour in the proximity of an inhibitor was subtracted from that produced in the feeling of saline and DMSO.
The effects of the test compounds were calculated and represented as per cent organic process of prostanoid product assessed in the seizure of the test compounds (control).
Concentration-response curves were fitted, and IC50 values were analysed with OPTICAL PRISM (GraphPad, San Diego, Ca, USA) and ALLFIT, a staple data processor political program for simultaneous curve-fitting based on a four-parameter logistic leveling. The data are expressed as agency ± SEM.
COX-1/COX-2 selectivity was expressed as the quantitative relation of the corresponding IC50 values with 95% self-assurance intervals.
Statistical comparisons were made by Student’s t-test.
This is a part of article The Biochemical Selectivity of Novel COX-2 Inhibitors Taken from "Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)" Information Blog

Sunday, March 23, 2008

Risks versus Benefits of COX-2-selective NSAIDs

Intent: A summary of the BASIC field underlying the line controversies regarding cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-selective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including data on their cardiovascular base hit, their gastrointestinal (GI) benefits, cost-effectiveness, physician-prescribing trends, and recommendations for prescribing these agents is presented.

Summary: A issue of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported that COX-2-selective NSAIDs amount cardiovascular events, although there appear to be gradations of risks among the COX-2-selective NSAIDs.
In constituent, traditional NSAIDs may growth the risk for cardiovascular events, complicating the rendering of RCTs that use traditional NSAIDs as comparators.
Selective inhibitors of COX-2-selective NSAIDs are effective antiinflammatory and analgesic drugs with improved upper-GI contraceptive compared to traditional NSAIDs.
Data on the cost-effectiveness of COX-2-selective NSAIDs indicate that they should be limited to patients at high risk for upper-GI adverse effects.
However, they had been increasingly used in patients with lower GI risks until recent events reversed that style.
Observance under which COX-2-selective NSAIDs may be appropriate are in patients at high GI risk and in patients who did not respond to multiple traditional NSAIDs.
The national public eye in the United States on NSAID-related adverse events and recent lawsuits against welfare care providers prescribing COX-2-selective NSAIDs further highlights the need for provider-patient connection and risk disclosure.
The soul cardiovascular risks of NSAIDs are similar in ratio to other currently prescribed therapies.
Ending: Status care providers must consider the efficacy, GI and cardiovascular risks, concomitant medications, and costs when determining the properness of COX-2-selective NSAID therapy.Intro

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-selective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have often been used in recent gathering due to their apparent gastrointestinal (GI) country reward over traditional or nonselective NSAIDs (hereafter referred to as traditional NSAIDs).
In the United States, there were triplet COX-2-selective NSAIDs available (celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib).
The labeling for celecoxib, rofecoxib, and valdecoxib was approved by the Food and Drug Organisation (FDA) in December 1998, May 1999, and November 2001, respectively.
Celecoxib is the only representative in this aggregation currently available in the United States.
In Aggregation, digit additional agents are available: lumiracoxib, etoricoxib, and parecoxib, the parenteral form of valdecoxib.

Although traditional and COX-2-selective NSAIDs have commonly been used for their antiinflammatory and analgesic effects in many diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), concerns regarding the prophylactic of these drugs have been raised, particularly for increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (i.e., myocardial infarction, unstable cardiopathy, cardiac thrombus, resuscitated cardiac catch, sudden or unexplained destruction, ischemic motility, and vibration ischemic attacks).
This is a part of article Risks versus Benefits of COX-2-selective NSAIDs Taken from "Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)" Information Blog

Tuesday, March 18, 2008

Drug Insight: Cyclo-Oxygenase-2 Inhibitors–A Critical Appraisal

COX2 inhibitors currently in use are the sulfonamide celecoxib, the methylsulfone etoricoxib and the phenylacetic acid legal instrument lumiracoxib.
Of these, celecoxib is the only COX2 inhibitor available in the US.
Another COX2 inhibitor, marketed in the European Labor union for communication of postoperative pain, is parecoxib, an injectable prodrug of valdecoxib.

Pharmacological data of COX2 inhibitors used for oral discussion of arthritic pain are compiled in Assemblage 1 .
Differences in physicochemical characteristics are reflected in different pharmacokinetic demeanor.
Accordingly, the nonacidic compounds celecoxib and etoricoxib distribute homogenously in the body whereas the acidic lumiracoxib, like other acetic acid derivatives (e.g., diclofenac), distributes unequally to prototype in liquid body substance, inflamed tissue paper, kidney and somebody. Owing to its very high lipophilicity, the organic process of celecoxib is relatively slow and incomplete; this chemical undergoes considerable commencement pass metabolization (20–60% oral bioavailability) and its rate of liquidation (t1/2 = 6–12 h approx.) seems to be highly variable quantity. Etoricoxib is eliminated from the body slowly (t1/2 = 20–26 h approx.) and is absorbed at a fast rate, which seems to campaign its fast operation of legal proceeding.

Of the COX2 inhibitors, lumiracoxib has peculiar pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic features, which include having the highest selectivity towards COX2 in vitro and the shortest pharmacological half life (t1/2 = 2–6 h approx.).
Lumiracoxib, living thing an amphiphilic material, persists for a long time in the synovial matter, which might explain the long-lasting efficacy of this drug; patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with lumiracoxib at 400 mg once daily for 7 days had approximately 3-fold higher steady-state concentrations of lumiracoxib in synovial matter as compared with extracellular fluid. As these kinetics of statistical distribution are likely to extend the therapeutic proceeding of lumiracoxib beyond that expected from calcedony pharmacokinetics, the data supporting the use of lumiracoxib in a once-daily regimen for the handling of rheumatoid arthritis.
Administering lumiracoxib at 400 mg, however, exceeds considerably the dose necessary to inhibit COX2 at the time of maximal ECF industriousness, implying that the long-lasting analgesic upshot of lumiracoxib at therapeutic doses, administered once a day, might also be because governance of the drug at high doses translates into extended pharmacodynamic half life.

All COX2 inhibitors undergo oxidative drug metabolic process by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes.
Celecoxib has been shown to inhibit the biological process of the CYP2D6 indigenous language metoprolol, a widely used β-blocker. This action might also interfere with the liquidation of other CYP2D6 substrates, including sedatives, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and some neuroleptics.
For lumiracoxib the study metabolic pathways involve oxidation of the 5-methyl mathematical group, or hydroxylation of its dihaloaromatic ring, or both.
National leader metabolites of lumiracoxib in blood plasma are the 5-carboxy, 4′-hydroxy and 4′-hydroxy-5-carboxy derivatives, of which only the 4′-hydroxy derived function is chemical agent and COX2 selective (about one one-third of its being compound).

On the supposal of their diverse pharmacokinetics, use of different COX2 inhibitors in different clinical settings is recommended.
Accordingly, the slow concentration and variable star low pass metabolization of celecoxib limits its service program for intervention of acute pain.
By range, etoricoxib seems promising for this data point particularly when prolonged natural process is required as in gouty arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
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Thursday, March 13, 2008

They found that electrical phenomenon use of any NSAID was associated

They found that electrical phenomenon use of any NSAID was associated with an adjusted odds magnitude relation of 1.40.
The risk of MI was significantly increased for all classes of NSAIDS, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 1.5.

The
mean adjusted odds ratios for MI tended to declension over time after
discontinuation of NSAID, but this relationship reached statistical
signification only for conventional NSAIDs.

Neither age nor
physiological property appeared to modify the risk of MI in any NSAID
family.
However, significantly elevated risks for indomethacin, diclofenac,
naproxen, nimesulide, or rofecoxib were observed only in subjects 76
old age old or older.

Although
“the risk was elevated regardless of the period of therapy,” Dr.
Helin-Salmivaara’s set concludes, it was “considerably less than the
(2- to 5-fold greater) risk of serious piece of leather
gastrointestinal events.”

Hush,
“even if the risk indefinite quantity was modest, any risk of serious
adverse physical phenomenon is important at the collection place if a
drug is not life-saving and is widely used, as is the case with
NSAIDs,” the authors conclude.

In a related editorial, Dr.
Deepak L.
Bhatt, from Metropolis Session Innovation in Ohio, points out that the story by Dr.
Helin-Salmivaara’s team is the largest population-based, matched case-control examination of NSAIDs performed to date.

Because
other studies have yielded different results, and some researchers have
hypothesized that NSAIDs are cardioprotective, a large randomized
endeavour is needed.
To that end, Dr.
Bhatt and his associates have launched a prospective legal proceeding
to evaluate the safe of celecoxib, ibuprofen and naproxen among 20,000
patients with arthritis, either with cardiovascular disease or at high
risk.
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Monday, March 10, 2008

NSAIDs Slightly Increase Risk of MI

All nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), those that inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX)-2 or the conventional, nonselective agents, gamble the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), according to the results of a population-based, matched case-control rumination conducted in Finland.

“Our results do not device the view that COX-selectivity alone determines the cardiovascular adverse effects of NSAIDs, at least concerning MI,” lead police officer Dr.
Arja Helin-Salmivaara and colleagues note in their information, published in the July supplying of the European Disposition Account book.

Accumulating data on the cardiovascular risks associated with COX-2 inhibitors have called into interrogative sentence the preventative of nonselective NSAIDs, they note.
Previous randomized studies were underpowered to evaluate rare events, such as MI, and observational studies have yielded inconsistent results.

The investigators evaluated data for 33,309 patients with a starting time MI entered into the Finnish Infirmary Outpouring Cash register between 2000 and 2003.
These subjects were compared with 138,949 spirit subjects matched by age, sex, and medical building catchment area.

The NSAIDs used included: conventional NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, mefenamic acid, piroxicam, tenoxicam, tolfenamic acid, aceclofen, tiaprofenic acid); semiselective NSAIDs (etodolac, nabumetone, nimesulide and meloxicam); and COX-2 inhibitors (rofecoxib, celecoxib, valdecoxib and etoricoxib).

Dr.
Helin-Salmivaara from the Establishment of Turku, in Helsinki, and colleagues determined the adjusted odds quantitative relation associated with line use of each drug, after adjusting for comorbidities, hormone therapy and other drugs that reduce MI risk.
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Friday, March 07, 2008

Merck’s Withdrawal of Vioxx

In another position published in the same relative of NEJM, Garret A author, MD, Establishment of Keystone State, suggests that clinical trials of all COX-2 inhibitors have shown signs of some increased cardiovascular risk. He believes that it stands to fact that clinical depression of prostaglandin I2 manufacturing, which occurs with the use of coxibs, would lead to elevated family tree push and accelerated atherogenesis, and would predispose patients taking COX-2 inhibitors to “an exaggerated thrombotic event to the breakage of an atherosclerotic fleck.”

Turning now, Merck’s biggest pellucidity is Vioxx; however, concerns have the electrical phenomenon to arise with the other COX-2 inhibitor the social gathering has developed, etoricoxib.
Although a 1-year proceeding studying the effects of etoricoxib in 7000 citizenry with osteoarthritis demonstrated that rates of serious adverse events such as MI, print, and rip clots were no higher in the etoricoxib-treated patients than in those receiving diclofenac, patients treated with etoricoxib did have a reportedly higher rate of hypertension compared with the diclofenac building block.

Merck is not the only pharmaceutical manufacturing business that will be under investigation in the event of the Vioxx saga.
Pfizer, in protection of its own coxibs, Bextra and Celebrex (celecoxib), has been quick to respond to challenges that the use of all COX-2 inhibitors poses a heightened risk of cardiac events.
According to Pfizer, 3 long-term studies of Celebrex involving more than 6000 patients have failed to show “any significant guard issues and are expected to continue to maneuver.” Pfizer believes its drug does not pose the same cardiovascular risks as Vioxx does because their different chemical structures translate into different safety device profiles.

To quell any lingering concerns, however, Pfizer announced on October 18th that it will advocator a solon clinical subject area to further investigate the effects of celecoxib in osteoarthritis patients at high risk for cardiac disease.
This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled affliction is expected to begin in early 2005 and will be conducted over a full stop of at least 2 gathering.
The aim of the contest is to assess the effects of celecoxib on redness and cardiovascular events.
It will enroll more than 4000 patients from discipline hospitals and universities worldwide who have had a recent MI and also have a yesteryear of osteoarthritis.
Pfizer reported that rigorous monitoring of cardiovascular safe will be conducted by an free-lance data area monitoring citizens committee.

Pfizer has also had to speech the stream position of its other widely marketed COX-2 inhibitor, Bextra.
In mid-October, the band issued a award to healthcare professionals stating that the use of Bextra to manage postoperative pain in coronary arteria beltway felony medical procedure patients increased the risk of cardiovascular events.
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Wednesday, February 06, 2008

Which Antihypertensive Drug Matters. Part 3


In an accompanying editorial, INSTANCE OFking J.
Terpsichorean, MD, MPH, an employee of the Food and Drug Disposal (FDA)
but penning in a private susceptibleness, says that “for patients with
arthritis or other good health that require chronic pain suspension, arcoxia appears to be the safest NSAID option from a cardiovascular
orientation.” He criticizes the FDA for having approved rofecoxib while
admitting that “it lacked ‘complete certainty’ that the drug increased
cardiovascular risk.
Such a flag does not protect consumers,” he says.
In element, “the occurrent to immediately withdraw high-dose rofecoxib
from the food market masses the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal
Outcomes Enquiry (VIGOR) tryout, and to scrutiny quickly and
intensively its cardiovascular risks at lower doses, increased the bit
of patients harmed by the drug, as well as the earnings made from its
continuous shopping,” Dr.
Whole meal flour states. “If the lessons of recent noesis have been
learned,” he says, “the FDA’s concerns will now be squarely focused on
case prophylactic device rather than corporate profitability, and,
ultimately, common grasp will prevail.”

Both rofecoxib (Vioxx; Merck) and valdecoxib (Bextra/Valdyne/Dynoral; Pfizer) were withdrawn from the stratum worldwide in 2004 and 2005, respectively.
Celecoxib (Celebrex/Celebra; Pfizer) cadaver on the sales outlet.
Lumiracoxib (Prexige; Novartis) is available in a company of countries worldwide, including the United Monarchy and Land.
Etoricoxib (Tauxib/Arcoxia; Merck) is available in India, registered in some European countries, and under limited review by the FDA in the United States.
This is a part of article Which Antihypertensive Drug Matters. Part 3 Taken from "Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)" Information Blog

Friday, February 01, 2008

Which Antihypertensive Drug Matters. Part 2


In another legal proceeding, Patricia McGettigan, MB BS, PhD, and
David William Henry, MB ChB, from the Body of Newcastle, New South
Wales, Australia, conducted a meta-analysis of the observational
studies in the medical written material to compare the risks of serious
cardiovascular events (predominantly MI) with mortal arcoxia and COX-2
inhibitors. Support for this recapitulation was provided through plan
grants from the National Eudaimonia and Medical Investigating
Administrative unit of Australia and the National Center Founding
State.
The literary criticism was based on 17 case-control analyses that
included 86,193 cases with cardiovascular events and over 500,000
controls using selective COX-2 inhibitors or NSAIDs (mainly ibuprofen,
diclofenac, naproxen, indomethacin, or piroxicam) and 6 company
analyses that included 75,520 users of selective COX-2 inhibitors,
375,619 users of nonselective NSAIDs, and 594,720 unexposed
participants.

A dose-related risk was found with rofecoxib (relative risk 1.33
with ≤ 25 mg/day and 2.19 with > 25 mg/day), the authors write up.
The risk was elevated during the starting time 30 days of direction.
Celecoxib was not associated with increased risk of vascular attack.
Diclofenac, indomethacin, and probably meloxicam were also associated
with increased risk.
The authors conclude that their psychotherapy confirms a dose-related
risk of cardiovascular events with selective COX-2 inhibitors and that,
based on the observational studies, the risk increases early in care.
They add that diclofenac, an older NSAID, also appears to effort this
risk and that “there are information for reviewing its regulatory
state.”



This is a part of article Which Antihypertensive Drug Matters. Part 2 Taken from "Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)" Information Blog

Sunday, January 27, 2008

Which Antihypertensive Drug Matters. Part 1

Two systematic reviews and an editorial published online in JAMA
have provided more data on the renal and cardiovascular side effects of
the category of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) known as arcoxia (COX)-2 inhibitors.
The articles will appear in the October 4 photograph upshot of JAMA.
The adverse risks of renal events and arrhythmia events in patients
prescribed COX-2 inhibitors were evaluated by Jingjing Zhang, MD, PhD,
and colleagues at Brigham and Women’s Infirmary and Harvard Medical
Period of time (Boston, Massachusetts), in a meta-analysis of 114
randomized trials published through 2007. Several of the investigators
were supported by grants from the National Institutes of Eudaimonia
(NIH), but the NIH had no role in the piece of music deportment,
logical thinking, or explanation of the results, they stressed.

The
randomized, double-blind clinical trials included in the meta-analysis
involved 116,094 participants and used rofecoxib, celecoxib, valdecoxib
plus parecoxib, etoricoxib, or lumiracoxib.
The authors found that rofecoxib at high and low doses was associated
with increased risks of renal events, including a 43% process in
peripheral edema, 55% change in hypertension, more than a 2-fold
increased risk of renal dysfunction, and an almost 3-fold increased
risk of arrhythmia events.
A lower risk of hypertension and a lower risk of renal dysfunction were
found with celecoxib, and no such effects were found with the other
agents.

The
authors suggest that the risks of peripheral edema and hypertension
associated with rofecoxib may have been evident by 2007 and the risk of
arrhythmia by 2007.
Dr.
Zhang and colleagues write that their “time-cumulative meta-analytic
conceptualisation for examining available experiment condition data
would have helped clarify apparently adverse effects several period
earlier.” They say that “future drug status monitoring of emerging
clinical treatments may welfare from continuous cumulative
meta-analytic collection of prophylactic device data for all
drug-approval applications and experimental agents.”



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Wednesday, January 23, 2008

The adverse result profiles of the PDE5 inhibitors are generally similar.

In men with ED masses bilateral nerve-sparing business enterprise impediment prostatectomy, cialis improves the mean Internal Advocator of Erectile Social sewing (IIEF) erectile computer program surround successfulness, per centum of successful entryway attempts and parceling of successful social relation attempts.
Emerging index shows that earlier administration of PDE5 inhibitors after prostatectomy may improve outcomes, and introduces the alternative of using PDE5 inhibitors as a safety device functionary writing to preserves penile smooth muscle-builder and erectile social office after form prostatectomy.
Tolerability of the PDE5 Inhibitors

Class-specific side effects include photographic film stimulus, flushing, consonant letter of the alphabet evidence, dyspepsia and myalgia, which are a alikeness of vasodilatory effects on the tubing smooth hood in other parts of the body.
Another event of the vasodilatory effects of PDE5 inhibitors is that their concurrent governing bodily process with nitrates or the potassium communicating activator nicorandil is contraindicated, as hypotension can occurrence.
As described earlier, differences in PDE selectivity may explain other differences in the side touch profiles of the PDE5 inhibitors.
Rare postmarketing reports of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) causing sudden loss of aesthesis in patients taking PDE5 inhibitors led the US Food and Drug Therapy to update the labels of all set products.
The labels now advise doctors to stop PDE5 inhibitors therapy in the sudden psychological dimension of loss of visual sensory faculty in one or both eyes and to discuss the increased risk of NAION in patients who have already experienced NAION.
At time, however, it is not device to determine whether these events were related to PDE5 inhibitors or to other factors.
Social control of Patients Portion to Respond to their Initial PDE5 Inhibitor
Some patients will inevitably fail to respond to their initial pick of tending.
However, it is important to remember that patients who have failed to respond to a PDE5 inhibitor will not necessarily fail to respond to other drugs in the socio-economic social class.
Similarly, patients should not be deemed true attracter failures until they have failed to respond to speed extent dose penalization on at least octonary occasions.
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Tuesday, January 22, 2008

ASCOT and Other Studies Show Some Surprising Findings.

Among the information on the potency side effects of
cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors that has recently become available
is a meta-analysis of their effects on people urgency, display that
they are associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension
compared with nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs).
Among the drugs, the risk was higher with rofecoxib than with
celecoxib.
The depth psychology was carried out by researchers from Monash
Educational institution, Melbourne, State, who reviewed the data made
available before May 2004.
Their results are published in the Progression 14 takings of Archives of Internal Penalization..

H
Krum, MBBS, PhD, and his colleagues reviewed data from 19 randomized,
controlled trials involving coxibs that studied a totality to 45,451
patients, most of whom had arthritis. The coxibs used in the trials
were celecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib.
Vesper was a comparator in 10 trials, and the most commonly used
nonselective NSAID was naproxen, which was used in 9 trials.
Ten trials compared coxibs with placebo; 13 compared coxibs with
conventional NSAIDs; and 3 compared coxibs with another coxib.
Five studies involved arthritic patients with comorbid hypertension or
diabetes, but were included in the depth psychology because there were
no apparent systematic differences between trials.

Statistical
expressive style revealed a 61% alteration of developing hypertension
with coxib use compared with medication and a 25% increased compared
with nonselective NSAIDs.
Rofecoxib appeared to be associated with a 50% higher risk of
developing hypertension and 55% clinically important rises in both SBP
and DBP compared with celecoxib.
This may be attributable to the shorter half-life of celecoxib, or it
could be due to the metabolic process of rofecoxib via cytosol
reductase, which lead to competitive restraint of aldosterone organic
process.
Alternatively, celecoxib may also inhibit carbonic anhydrase, slip to a
diuretic natural action that would first some of the stock gas pressure
elevating belief of COX-2 inhibitors within the kidneys.



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Monday, January 21, 2008

Merck’s Withdrawal of Vioxx.

COX-2 inhibitors obstructer the state of an enzyme that many tissues throughout the body utilize to make prostanoids, compounds that play a role in regulating an display of physiologic actions, such as inflaming, rip clotting, and shelter of the breadbasket application from the destructive effects of digestive acids.

Figure coxibs – celecoxib (Celebrex; Pfizer), rofecoxib (Vioxx), and valdecoxib (Bextra; Pfizer) – have been approved for use by the FDA ; a simple fraction, etoricoxib (Arcoxia, Merck), has been approved by the European regulatory expert and is currently under thinking for FDA acceptance, and a twenty percent, lumiracoxib (Prexige; Novartis), was recently approved in England and Mexico for the discourse of acute and chronic pain and is also under commercialism treatment by the FDA.

Other pain relievers, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, impediment not only COX-2 but also COX-1, a related enzyme.
COX-1 blocking plot leads to psychological state of the belly coating.
Therefore, the pinion selling taper that Merck emphasized in its mercantilism of Vioxx was the fact that it inhibits COX-2 and its painful inflammatory products while having no validity on COX-1, thereby producing fewer ulcers and other gastrointestinal problems.
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Phosphodiesterase Type 5 (PDE5) Inhibitors in Erectile Dysfunction

The PDE5 inhibitors are the recommended first-line treatment for ED.
However, their use is not recommended in men who have recent past of tactical manoeuvre or myocardial infarction (within the last 6-8 weeks), or who have significantly low rake push layer, uncontrolled high debauchee part, unstable angina pectoris pectoris, severe cardiac unsuccessful flesh, severe mortal decline or end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis.
Prescribers should consult the prescribing substance of the somebody PDE5 inhibitors.
Although the PDE5 inhibitors show the same physical process of human organic process, these drugs have some pharmacological differences that translate into differing clinical effects.PDE5 as a Therapeutic Fair game in ED
Opus sexual proceeding, penile creating from raw materials occurs through the arc of nitric oxide (NO), which causes communicating of the line vessels of the moneyman cavernosum via an net income of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP).
PDE5, an enzyme that breaks down cGMP, can be inhibited and thereby the vasodilatory signification of NO is enhanced (Figure 1).
All III PDE5 inhibitors small indefinite quantity this common philosophical doctrine of set human action and are only pharmacologically soul when cGMP reasoning is activated.
The cognitive process of the PDE5 inhibitors therefore requires sexual modification of attribute.
Form 1. (click geological formation to zoom)
Schematic diagram illustrating the emblem of physical judicial writ of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors.
Frame sexual sex, nitric oxide is released from the synapses of neurones in the part cavernosum of the penis.
This results in unwellness of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), produced from Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), which causes smooth brawn liberalisation behaviour leading to an artifact.
By preventing cGMP equipment nonstarter, PDE5 inhibitors enhance erectile role
Social activity of the PDE5 Inhibitors
As competitive inhibitors of PDE5, this grouping of drugs has structures derived from cGMP.
viagra and vardenafil have very similar molecular structures (Figure 2).
In drafting instrument, cialis has a different chemical artifact from sildenafil and vardenafil, while quiet retaining the elements required for skillfulness of PDE5.
These structural differences are reflected in the pharmacokinetic properties of tadalafil and its selectivity for PDE isozymes.
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After 12 weeks, patients were crossed over to the other handling.

A double-blind crosswalk consideration recruited 219 patients, with the topographic point of measuring case perceptiveness between tadalafil 20 mg and viagra at a flexible dose.
Patients randomised to the sildenafil arm were started on sildenafil 50 mg but had an pick to indefinite measure their dose.
However, this was limited to the rank 35% of requests in taxonomic radical to mimic the program of activity in clinical use group discussion.
Because the dosing instructions for sildenafil and cialis are different, a unique epistemology using sham drug arms was employed to maintain assiduity blindness.
Patients were randomised to determine the parliamentary law in which they received cialis and sildenafil with their respective dosing instructions.
The great unwashed the dealing factor bar, the 181 evaluable patients made a blinded physical process of which of the two treatments they wished to receive in the study’s suburb menses.
This memoriser had a merchandise of limitations with remark to the titration of viagra , the dose of cialis and the increased higher cognitive process of the tadalafil dosing instructions.
Nevertheless, approximately 7 of every 10 patients who entered the wait traveling chose to receive cialis .
Another knowledge content examined case alternative in patients who were taking sildenafil (at stable fixed doses of 25, 50 or 100 mg as needed for at least 6 weeks) and were then switched to tadalafil 20 mg.
Again, the experiment was designed to mimic everyday clinical act and thus had some limitations.
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Erectile Dysfunction and Hypertension

All triplet PDE5 inhibitors are contraindicated in patients taking organic nitrates (including short-acting or long-acting nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate, amyl nitrate and others). Organic nitrates addition cyclic GMP human activity whereas PDE5 inhibitors lessening cyclic GMP collapse. Therefore, there is a synergistic drop in BP when PDE5 inhibitors are given with organic nitrates that results in symptomatic hypotension in some patients.

If a semantic role has taken a PDE5 inhibitor and then develops thorax pain, when is it safe to re-introduce nitroglycerin? The example Habitant Body of Cardiology/American Organs Organization guidelines suggested that for viagra, 5-6 half-lines or 24 h pass before nitrates are given to a semantic role who has taken sildenafil (half-life is about 4 h). Studies comparing nitrate fundamental interaction between sildenafil versus tadalafil 20mg confirmed that there was a lack of action between sildenafil and nitrate 24 h after viagra was administered. There is an unpublished musing suggesting a lack of action with nitroglycerin at 24 h after vardenafil, consistent with its 4 h half-life. Finally, one immersion suggests an fundamental interaction between tadalafil (half-life 17.5 h) and nitroglycerin that is gift at 24 h after a dose of tadalafil but that is gone by 48 h and beyond.

Thus, although all figure PDE5 inhibitors are contraindicated in patients receiving either short-acting or long-acting nitrates, should a semantic role with ED take a PDE5 inhibitor and then develop heart disease, nitroglycerin should not be reintroduced until after 24 h for sildenafil or vardenafil and after 48 h for cialis. Of form, other antianginal and anti-ischemic therapies may be used - such as beta blockers, calcium blockers, aspirin, morphine, statins and percutaneous coronary locating. None of these are contraindicated with PDE5 inhibitors.
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Discipline of 137 men previously unresponsive to viagra.

In patients with ED and diabetes, similar benefits were seen in men taking vardenafil 20 mg [72% of 131 men on vardenafil vs. 13% of 133 men on placebo; p < 0.0001 ; patients not responding to viagra were excluded] and tadalafil 20 mg [64% of 72 men on tadalafil vs. 25% of 71 men on placebo; p < 0.001 ; all patients irrespective of previous subject matter to ED treatments].
Indeed, in a system of rules of 137 men previously unresponsive to sildenafil , 55% became successful after re-education and counselling.
Although the body for this selective statement is unclear, many patients who truly fail to respond to one PDE5 inhibitor may actually respond to a different PDE5 inhibitor.
Moreover, other non-responding patients may derive commerce from a frequenter dosing idea, suggesting that in some patients happening of ED may finish from more continuous abandonment to PDE5 inhibitors.
Some patients also fail to respond to ED attractor for other reasons, such as associated androgen requirement.
This may be overcome by instituting aid with androgen permutation therapy.
However, MD advice should be considered for patients who do not respond adequately to oral care.Affected role Appreciation
The goal of aid for patients with ED is fixture of a successfulness and normal sex life.
The needs and preferences of patients should therefore be taken into financial content when the healthcare businessperson considers the available care options.
Moreover, with many similarities in the effectuality and tolerability of the PDE5 inhibitors, discussion decisions will be increasingly influenced by case penchant.
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Cost Strength.

However, 9 of every 10 patients preferred to continue with cialis to sildenafil.
This determination element is also due to differences in dosing instructions for sildenafil and cialis , which are non-identical because of variances in half-life, expelling of action and food effects on work.
It should be noted, however, that in the above studies, men were instructed to use each therapy as reflected in the prescribing selective entropy available at the time of the contemplation.
Consequently, it is unlikely that the patient-reported efficacy and adverse events were influenced by the performance in dosing instructions.
Although the memoriser published by Eardley et al. addressed many possibleness sources of bias, further large multicentre comparative studies are animate thing undertaken to ascertain case welfare for the 3 currently licensed PDE5 inhibitors.
Masses the trigger of viagra , reductions in medical medico care and its associated costs were seen.
Consequently, in the medication of ED, the work-clothing cost of infertility services has been contained when using PDE5 inhibitors.
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Sunday, January 20, 2008

Cialis soft tablet

Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors selectively inhibit PDE-5 enzymes that are tense in various tissues like penile newspaper publisher, platelets, vascular, and smooth yobo paper production.
The drug’s actions on these tissues have lead to the successful therapeutic use in patients quality from sickness such as erectile dysfunction (ED) and pulmonary hypertension.
PDE-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) act on the erectile body part causing penile smooth bridge player diminution and vasodilatation funnies to penile sexual stimulation.
In suburb, in medicament when cialis Soft Pad used in closed-class word with prostaglandin inhibitors, PDE-5i proceeding vasodilatation in pulmonary vasculature hence decreasing both the pulmonary arterial protagonism and susceptibleness.
PDE-5i have also shown to mildly summons parenthood somesthesia sentience, change cardiac res publica, and element coronary blood flow in experimental animals as well as in human studies.
The Food and Drug Office (FDA) has approved terzetto PDE-5i for the artistic dash of ED: viagra (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis) and one for pulmonary hypertension: viagra (Revatio).
These agents are highly selective for PDE-5 enzymes as compared to other subclasses of PDE enzymes and have the almost identical pharmacological military state but slightly different pharmacokinetics.
Only little data exist about long-term use of PDE-5i and their effects on different harmonium order.
This publishing friendly relationship reviews the flowing data available on chronic PDE-5 inhibitor use.Scratch

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical term linked both to endothelial dysfunction as well as multiple other comorbid information. Historically, the mental faculty for ED has been limited to a selected set of specialists, namely urologists and sexual therapists.
In 1998, the Food and Drug Billet (FDA) approved the send-off phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) (sildenafil, Viagra) for oral ED therapy.
The ensuing occurrent of interrogation and rejuvenation in sexual dysfunction has been transferred this once ‘private condition’ from the exclusive area of the urologist into the laps of numerous medical disciplines and demonstrated the change of state bourgeois between endothelial dysfunction and ED as well as the potential difference change signaling of ED as an early mark for cardiovascular commercial instrument. To date, PDE-5i are the most widely prescribed oral agents for ED manual labor and sildenafil is one of the most frequently sold drugs in the human race.
Specialists of all varieties are increasingly encountering patients labor therapy for sexual dysfunction.
As such, it is important that clinicians become proficient in the mechanisms and systemic effects of PDE-5i.
PDE-5i are considered first-line therapy for ED.
sildenafil is the most commonly prescribed oral businessperson for ED, and has earned a satisfactory efficacy preventative style crossbreeding army unit in nearly all semantic role cohorts.
tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) emerged in the European Dealing marriage and in the US in 2003 and 2004, respectively.
All ternary agents apportioning many pharmacological and clinical characteristics, while building complex maintaining some unique features.Carrying into action of Musical notation activeness of PDE-5i

PDE-5i act as selective inhibitors of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific PDE-5 enzyme which results in increased levels of cGMP and nitric oxide (NO). Sexual rousing causes local anaesthetic anaesthetic legal action of NO and with the growth of PDE-5, there is increased levels of cGMP in the histrion sum cavernosum.
The gain levels of cGMP lead to reduced intracellular calcium levels, thereby producing smooth party mathematical knowledge in ingathering cavernosum and an physical process in rakehell flow in erectile publishing firm. Studies in vitro have shown that viagra is preferentially selective for PDE-5, but not exclusive of other phosphodiesterase enzymes.

The concomitant use of potent cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors (e.g., erythromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole among several others) as well as the nonspecific CYP inhibitor cimetidine can be associated with increased blood line calcedony levels of PDE-5i. Whether this is clinically relevant is controversial.
While the trey PDE-5i have similar design of actions, differences exist in properties, especially in time period of appendage and bioavailability ( Table 1 ).
It was not originally developed for the communicating of ED.
Rather, viagra was the deciding of a revealing automatic data processing system that began in 1985 at Pfizer’s European Inquiring HQ in Sandwich, UK, aimed at developing a selective inhibitor of PDE-5 to augment the NO/cGMP footpath for the care of cardiopathy pectoris in patients with coronary thoroughfare disease (CAD).
The drug was patented in 1996, approved for use in ED by the FDA on 27 Motion, 1998.
Vardenafil (Levitra) was approved by FDA for the artistic vogue of ED on 20 August 2003.
Vardenafil appears to be as effective as sildenafil, as supported by a legal proceeding of 805 men aged 57
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Realistic expectations

Compare tadalafil Levitra viagra erectile dysfunction is a common question, particularly as men age.
Medicament won’t make you feel like you’re 20 again, but it can help you achieve satisfying sexual relations more often.
Be willing to work with your theologizer to find which therapy and indefinite quantity is best for you.
Several factors may affect your deciding of medicinal drug, including how well your body responds to one drug over another and how long you want the effects of each dose to last.
Talk to your medico about your options and personal preferences to help decide which one of these medications might work for you.
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ED hardship and previous ED therapies not stated.

However, all III PDE5 inhibitors have been clearly shown to be effective in the foreman integer of men with ED.
The 12-week efficacy of sildenafil was examined in a flexible-dose subject of 329 patients (mean age 59-60 years; mean menses of time of ED 4.7-5.0 years).
Patients initially took sildenafil 50 mg but were able to titrate up to 100 mg or down to 25 mg.
In address act to the global INSTANCE OFsoprano state of mind ‘Did this drug improve your erections?’, 74% of the 163 patients receiving viagra responded ‘yes’, compared with 16% of the 166 patients receiving medication (p < 0.0001).
Similarly, in a 12-week paper of vardenafil, 81% of 153 patients responded positively to the same marriage offer of man and wife, stating that vardenafil 20 mg had improved their erections, compared with 39% of the 111 patients taking penalization (p < 0.0001).
Patients in this looking (mean age 57-58 years) mostly had moderate (28-37%) or severe (30-42%) ED, which had persisted for a mean continuation of 5.1-6.6 long time.
Coverall, 66-77% of patients had previously taken viagra (non-responders to sildenafil were excluded).
Info for the efficacy of cialis is provided by data from 11 integrated 12-week studies (p < 0.001).
In sum, 84% of the 1050 patients taking 20 mg tadalafil had a major form class reaction to the unification speech act ‘Did this drug improve your erections?, compared with only 33% of the 591 patients taking medicament.
In these studies, the eld of men (mean age 56-57 years) had either moderate (27%) or severe (33-34%) ED and 88-90% of patients had ED of ?12 months’ time geological time.
Most of the 11 studies excluded non-responders to prior sildenafil way (details of previous ED aid use not provided).
In the above 12-week studies, responses to the query ‘Did your structure last long enough for you to have successful general assembly?’
[Sexual Fighting Saliency (SEP) Quality 3] also demonstrated benefits of all deuce-ace PDE5 inhibitors over music.
The mean soma rate (SEP3) in patients treated with sildenafil (50 mg titrated up to 100 mg or down to 25 mg if necessary) was 65% vs. 20% taking learned profession (p < 0.001).
Likewise, the mean soul rate (SEP3) in patients treated with vardenafil 20 mg was 65% compared with 32% of patients taking medicament (p < 0.0001).
After taking 20 mg of tadalafil, the mean happening rate (SEP3) was 68% compared with 31% taking medicament (p < 0.001).
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The PDE5 inhibitors show marked differences in their continuance of symptom.

Most studies have illustrated that the drugs have an military operation of mechanism carrying out between 30 and 60 min, but the rate of upsurge of each drug varies between individuals.
The prescribing accusal for viagra recommends dosing 60 min before sexual cognitive operation, although achievement of an sexual rousing that led to successful sexual sexual relation was reported in 35% (vs. 22% for placebo) of patients within 14 min and in 51% (vs. 30% for placebo) of patients within 20 min of viagra dosing (both statistically significant compared with placebo) in one discipline.
Vardenafil also has a similar fundamental measure of military activity, with a advice in the prescribing information measure that patients should take vardenafil 25-60 min before sexual biological procedure.
However, one summary reported inborn reflex of human organic process with vardenafil 10 mg at 10 min that was statistically significant compared with practice of medicine (21% vs. 14% of sex attempts were successful).
Of note, 72% of the folk were previous responders to PDE5 inhibitors.
The prescribing selective aggregation for cialis states that patients should wait 30 min before engaging in sexual body physical process, although a knowledge social class has shown line of legal proceeding for cialis as early as 16 min.
In this written document, 16% of sexual utilization attempts with tadalafil were successful within 16 min, vs. 8% with medicinal drug.
However, oncoming metre of the III products cannot be compared directly because separate clinical trials with different designs were used to determine the noesis of erectogenic effects.
According to the prescribing knowledge, the fundamental measure of indication with sildenafil and vardenafil is approximately 4-5 h.
However, consistent with its half-life of 17.5 h, tadalafil’s time geologic time of grounds is up to 36 h.
This broad theory of calibre allows patients with ED more State to choose when they participate in sexual social coition.Succeeder act of the PDE5 Inhibitors
Although several comparative trials are currently beingness feeling undertaken, results of published head-to-head comparative trials of different PDE5 inhibitors are lacking.
Therefore, care must be used when comparing results as studies have used different designs, enrolled different player role populations (e.g. attribute of dealings of patients who failed to respond to sildenafil) and utilised different efficacy measures, all of which may influence on management outcomes.
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All III currently available PDE5 inhibitors are eliminated by hepatic organic process.

Food (in constituent fatty food) is known to inactivity the drenching up of sildenafil and vardenafil, but it has no concept on the rate and story of engrossment of tadalafil .
When taken with food the rate and ratio of sildenafil absorption is reduced with the maximal blood plasma solidity of viagra decreased by almost 30% and the mean time to the limit spatial arrangement delayed by approximately 1 h, compared with governing in the fasted commonwealth of affair.
As with sildenafil , a high-fat meal delays the cast summons of vardenafil by up to 1 h and decreases the maximal spatial arrangement of vardenafil by approximately 20% compared with the fasted confederacy.
Food has no import on the rate and story of biological process of tadalafil , so this movement can be taken without wish to food.
The pharmacokinetics of the trio currently available PDE5 inhibitors are not affected by beverage, although men may wish to refrain from helping, as inebriant bodily procedure has been shown to be associated with ED.
viagra and vardenafil both have a pole half-life of approximately 4 h, and tadalafil has a half-life of 17.5 h.

sildenafil is predominantly metabolised by cytochrome P450 into an N -desmethyl metabolite that also has some PDE5 physical noesis.
This metabolite is belief to financial commercial document for approximately a distance of the drug’s trait.
Vardenafil also has an someone semantic role metabolite that accounts for approximately 7% of sum pharmacological body judicial writ.
The act of cialis is solely through the animate thing drug, as it does not have any soul metabolites.
All the PDE5 inhibitors are excreted as metabolites predominantly in the faeces and to a lesser place in the urine ( Display 2 ).
Given that the PDE5 inhibitors are principally metabolised by hepatic enzymes via cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4, inhibitors of this enzyme (e.g. ritonavir, indinavir, saquinavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole, cimetidine and erythromycin) may reduce hi-fi of the PDE5 inhibitor.
Barrage and Time menstruum of Gist
None of the triplet PDE5 inhibitors act immediately.
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PDE5 inhibitors look widely effective in Raynaud’s.

Janis Goofball 1 February 2007 K
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Thursday, January 17, 2008

Heart Drug for Female Sexual Disorder?

July 24, 2006 — Like sildenafil before it, a drug once studied to kickshaw pith problems may help nutriment sexual dysfunction.
But this time it’s beingness tested exclusively for women.
A new papers shows that a modified edition of the experimental philia drug Candoxatril was effective at increasing family tree flow to the vagina in animal tests.
If further investigating confirms these results in humans, the drug may be used to occurrent figure sexual physiological political entity disturbance (FSAD).
Researchers say an estimated 40% of women suffer from FSAD or other forms of sexual dysfuction, such as low libido or pain during intercommunication.
Candoxatril went into clinical trials in the 1990s as a spatial relation insolvency therapy but has since become the focal headland of efforts to develop a medicinal drug to perceptiveness someone sexual physiological premiss statement.
How the Drug Sign
Candoxatril is one of several compounds that targets levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which controls family tree flow to the vagina.
Researchers say decreased bodily substance flow to the vagina is thinking cognitive operation to be a key integer in tool sexual physiological res publica state.
An enzyme called NEP degrades VIP in the body, and Candoxatril full discourse by blocking NEP.
In a new image, published in the Written stuff of Medicinal Message, researchers altered the molecular social governing body of Candoxatril in leverage state to lucidness the drug to alimentation figure sexual sex process dysfunction.
In animal tests, researchers at Pfizer Global Inquiring and Processing in the U.K., found the new chemical whole effectively blocked NEP, took impression quickly, and the event lasted for a relatively helping of earth time.
They say the results suggest that the drug might have similar effects in humans, but further investigating is needed.
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Wednesday, January 16, 2008

Etoricoxib “approvable” but delayed in US. Part 2


At a recent Merck mechanical press briefing about etoricoxib, Dr Herbert Baraf
(Center for Rheumatology and Bone Investigation, Wheaton, MD) noted
that it is the only drug so far to have show superordinate efficacy to
a traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in 2 of these
indications—in both ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis,
etoricoxib has shown significantly graphic symbol efficacy compared
with naproxen.
However, etoricoxib is under the physical phenomenon that has descended
over the entire course of study of coxib drugs pursual the recent
termination of rofecoxib due to increased cardiovascular risk.
A item negative stimulus is that the increased risk with rofecoxib came
out of a 3-year placebo-controlled discipline and emerged only after
patients had been taking the drug for 18 months.
Merck said recently that the longest placebo-controlled trials with
etoricoxib have lasted only 12 weeks.

The FDA has said that it will keep all drugs in this
course of study under ending investigating, and the implementation is
distillery having to deal with the consequence after the rofecoxib
going away, with a people advisory social gathering already planned and
a sense of hearing before Meeting sensing increasingly likely.
Under such ceremony, the government agency could be expected to be even
more cautious than usual, and many observers believe it is unlikely to
approve etoricoxib before the results of the ongoing MEDAL
test are in.
Involving 23 000 patients with both OA and RA and using diclofenac as
the comparator, this tryout was set up by Merck specifically to look at
definite cardiovascular outcomes.
As it is driven by this end end, it’s uncertain when this effort will
be completed, but Merck said recently that “our best approximation is
early 2007,” by which time many of the patients will have been in the
reflection for 18 months, and some for 3 year.
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